Optional, but it is generally left off the curriculum vitae (CV). Some state, “To secure a residency that…” but professional objectives can do more harm than good as they state the obvious, appear unoriginal, and take up space. Your intentions of applying to a residency or fellowship program are apparent, and besides, your personal statement (PS) will expand on this.
EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE
This includes all professional degrees earned such as BA, BS, MS, and PharmD. This section needs to include the school name/location where the degree was obtained and the dates of attendance. Most human resource departments will confirm degrees and may ask for a performance assessment (e.g., transcripts). Of note, there are some students who add grade point average (GPA) after their degrees (e.g., GPA: 3.53). However, it is not a necessity. For example:
Doctor of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center; Memphis, Tennessee (anticipated graduation date: May 2019)
Bachelor of Science in Psychology, University of Florida; Gainesville, Florida
Licensure and Certification
Include your pharmacy intern license(s) (or other licenses you may have) and information including state(s) and date(s) issued. Also, include any certification(s) you have received such as tobacco cessation training, immunization training, and teaching certificates. For example:
American Heart Association Basic Cardiac Life Support Certification
Get Naloxone Now First Responder Training
American Pharmacist Association Pharmacist-Based Immunization Delivery Certificate
Florida Intern Pharmacist License 2984578 (expires October 2020)
Honors and Awards
This can go as high up on your CV as following the licensure and certification section or later in the CV. Although the general format of ordering should be followed, the higher up you list a section on your CV can be interpreted as the level of importance deemed by the applicant. It can also be omitted entirely if you do not have any. For example:
First Place Florida Society of Health-System Pharmacists Clinical Skills Competition
Rho Chi Honor Society, Gamma Theta Chapter
Phi Lambda Sigma Honor Society, Omega Chapter
Professional Work Experience
This typically includes all internships and research positions held. Your supervisor’s name in each position should also be listed; however, avoid including contact information such as an address, e-mail, or phone number. You should include a brief description of responsibilities. Dates of employment should be on the left margin, so that they stand out easily. For example:
Pharmacy Intern, Prescription Drugs Pharmacy; Miami Beach, FL
Supervisor: Richard S. Finkel, PharmD
Role: Obtained verbal telephone orders from prescribers, assessed appropriateness of received orders for drug, dose, and frequency prior to filling, assembled pharmacy policies and procedures for on-site immunization program, assisted pharmacists in counseling patients, created software to manage pharmacy technician scheduling
Research Assistant, Larkin University; Miami, FL
Supervisor: Dexter Brunson, PharmD, BCPS
Project title: Text messaging to improve adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes
Role: Collected background information for the study, assisted with Institutional Review Board (IRB) preparation, enrolled patients, data entry to Excel, data assessment and interpretation of findings for clinical relevance, editing of abstract/poster preparation and presentation
Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences
List each experience with the name of the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and location (including site, city/state, and preceptor). Additionally, have two to three sentences or four to six bullets describing the experience as stated in Chapter 2: Developing Your Curriculum Vitae and Personal Statement. Dates of experiences should be on the left margin. Be clear and concise in your descriptions. Use active not passive verbs to emphasize the skills that you utilized. “Rounding with the team” could be enhanced by saying “Provided clinical recommendations on an interprofessional team during daily rounds.” Most Residency Program Directors (RPDs) would like to know how many patients you were responsible for covering on an inpatient service; you may be asked this during an interview or you may add it to your descriptive bullets. Always be aware of your verb tense throughout your curriculum vitae. Too often, grammatical errors arise that are preventable, particularly when students begin to list their descriptive bullets and change verb tense between bullets. This indicates lack of attention to detail and possible written communication deficits. If the APPE has occurred, list bullets as past tense. If the APPE is forthcoming, bullets can be future tense. Descriptive bullets should focus on your clinical, interprofessional interactions, and communication skills sets. If you provided presentations on an APPE, move this into the presentation section under the subheading of APPE presentations. If you provided a medication-use evaluation (MUE) during an APPE, move this into the research section as this is a research skill set that you are displaying.
Internal Medicine I
Memorial Southern Hospital; Miami, Florida
Preceptor: Robert Batard, PharmD, BCPS
Delivered evidence-based drug therapy recommendations to a 5 member interprofessional team during daily rounds
Reviewed daily laboratory values and medication lists (8-15 patients covered)
Provided pharmacokinetic monitoring (e.g., vancomycin per pharmacy) and recommended drugs for therapeutic interchange
Engaged daily with patients to assess medication response and provided discharge counseling
Proofread your advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) descriptions for appropriate grammar and verb tense. If the APPE has been completed, use past tense. If it has not yet been completed, use the future tense. This area is often one with many preventable grammatical errors which may cast doubt on an applicant’s attention to detail.
Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences
Similar to APPEs, list each experience with the name of the introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and location (including site, city/state, and preceptor). Additionally, have two to three sentences describing the experience as stated in Chapter 2: Developing Your Curriculum Vitae and Personal Statement. Dates of experiences should be on the left margin. For example:
October 2016–April 2017
McGyver’s Compounding Pharmacy; Coral Springs, Florida
Preceptor: Xiu Ming, PharmD
■ Filled prescriptions
■ Compounded and dispensed medications to patients
■ Processed transfer of prescriptions
List any past or ongoing research projects or assigned projects (e.g., MUE) during IPPE or APPE in this section. List each experience with the name of the study, location (e.g., healthcare setting, university), and primary advisor. You may add two to three bullets stating your role and if you submitted/presented a poster or manuscript.
Do not capitalize all words of the research or assigned project title.
Medication-use evaluation (MUE) on erenumab for migraine.
All Nations Health Care; Columbus, OH
Pharmacist Mentor: Robert Rodriquez, PharmD
■ Performed a comprehensive MUE that included analysis of data on efficacy, safety, and cost in order to provide recommendations for place in therapy and institutional implications
■ Presented findings to the Pre-Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee for presentation at the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
■ The Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee developed a prior authorization form for the healthcare system based on the results of the review
The relationship between medication adherence and cognition in patients with HIV.
University of Southern California; Los Angeles, CA
Principal Investigator: Juan Barberis, PharmD
■ Role: Collected background information for the study, assisted with IRB preparation, data entry to Excel, data analysis, and assessment of clinical implications
■ Submitted abstract to ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting (pending decision)
The use of text messaging to improve adherence in type 2 diabetes.
Lipscomb University; Nashville, TN
Principal Investigator: Kevin A. Clauson, PharmD
■ Role: Collected background information for the study, assisted with IRB preparation, designed database, data entry to Excel, data analysis, and assessment of clinical implications. Also, assisted with recruiting and consenting patients and obtained blood samples (e.g., point-of-care tests)
■ Presented at the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, July 2018
Peer Review for a Professional Journal
Assisted general medicine preceptor in peer reviewing a manuscript submitted to American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Lemus JA, Benavides S, Caballero J, Clauson KA. Using text messaging to improve adherence and health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2019;69(5):400-404.
Lemus JA, Caballero J, Benavides S, Clauson KA. The use of text messaging to improve adherence in type 2 diabetes. Am J Pharm Educ. 2018;74(Article 8):3. [abstract]
If you reviewed a manuscript with a preceptor, do not state the name of the article or even the topic as you may unknowingly expose the blinded review process.
Keep your APPE and professional presentations separate. For professional presentations, core items include author(s), presentation title, audience(s), specific site, and city/state along with month and year. You can also include the type of presentation in parentheses (e.g., poster, platform presentation) to enhance clarity.
Professional Meeting Presentations and Posters
Lemus JA, Caballero J, Benavides S, Clauson KA. The use of text messaging to improve adherence in type 2 diabetes. Presented at the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, July 2018. [poster]
■ Helped create poster for presentation
■ Presented poster at meeting (OK to omit, if you were not the presenter)
If you presented at a pharmacy conference, the audience does not need to be defined. However, if it is a conference that someone reviewing your CV is not familiar with, then consider defining the audience.
Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Presentations
Cardiology: Journal Club Presentation - Plato Trial
■ 30 minute presentation with PowerPoint slides and handout
■ Audience: preceptor, pharmacy student, 2 medical students
Internal Medicine I: Linezolid for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus
■ 1 hour presentation with handout
■Audience: 5 member interprofessional team
Geriatrics: Appropriate use of antidepressants in the elderly
■ 1 hour presentation with PowerPoint slides and handout
■ Audience: pharmacists, physicians, and medical students
Any topic you have presented and included in your CV is fair game to the interviewer, so know your presentation(s) inside and out!
Clinical Pharmacy 175 – Core Skills in Therapeutics
■ Facilitated four 1-hour workshops to 12 first-year pharmacy students
■ Workshop included blood pressure monitoring, assessing pulse, and providing patient counseling
Health and Statistics 120
■ Assisted professor in grading calculation questions for midterm and final exams
Tutor (Service to Phi Lambda Sigma Honor Society, Omega Chapter)
■ Tutored undergraduate students in health and statistics and clinical pharmacy
Mentor (Service to Phi Lambda Sigma Honor Society, Omega Chapter)
■ Longitudinal mentor to 1 incoming new member in 2018
Undergraduate tutor in mathematics
■ Tutored 1-2 freshman students per semester in mathematics
MEMBERSHIP AND SERVICE TO PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
List your memberships to all local, state, and national organizations. Remember to specify the specific chapter name. Dates are unnecessary unless you have held specific positions in professional organizations. It is important to provide a description of what you contributed under service roles as stating the name of the role does not tell the person reading your CV what you did. Being president of an association does not indicate leadership by virtue of the name president. Cite examples of your accomplishments that highlight your impact. If you carried an initiative forward in your role as secretary or treasurer, again, it is important to highlight this.
Phi Lambda Sigma Honor Society, Omega Chapter
■ Planned and organized various leadership workshops specific for students
■ Ensured logistics for all events were well-organized
■ Recorded meeting minutes
■ Scheduled meetings and arranged room reservations
■ Offered tutorial sessions for students
■ Assisted in professional and fundraising events
Alliance of Students Against Poverty
■ Established an organization focusing on the eradication of poverty in the Philippines
■ Helped plan a conference for university students from Florida to raise awareness on the struggle against poverty
■ Organized Hunger Banquet with Oxfam to support the fight against hunger
■ Coordinated fundraising and community events
List community service activities and any volunteer events that you participated in. Stick with only those completed during pharmacy school.
Argentina Medical Mission; Mar del Plata, Los Cardales, Argentina
■ Interprofessional team (e.g., pharmacists, physicians, dentists, students) assessed, evaluated, and treated underserved patients
■ Provided therapeutic drug recommendations and alternatives
■ Counseled patients on medications
Southern Spring Wellness Day, Lipscomb University; Nashville, Tennessee
■ Operation Medicine Cabinet: Worked with a pharmacist and the county sheriff in the documentation and handling of expired medications
■ Properly disposed patients’ unused medications, including controlled substances
Tenth Annual ASSIST Health Fair; Bell Glades, Florida
■ Planned bone density screening activity with pharmacy advisor
■ Completed training on U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for bone density screening and use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner
■ Counseled patients on proper lifestyle modifications
If you were interviewed for a newspaper or television piece regarding any healthcare-related event, you may place it under a heading of Media Appearances.
Tome Control De Su Peso; Hialeah, Florida
■ 20-minute interview in Spanish
■ Interviewed for television educational piece regarding obesity